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December 15, 2010: by Bill Sardi
Apple polyphenols extend life in roundworms similar to resveratrol, which points to small molecules that control iron and copper as exerting these life-prolonging effects. Resveratrol is solely a copper chelator but also controls iron indirectly. This report further substantiates the over-mineralization theory of aging.
Planta Med. 2010 Aug 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Research Laboratories for Fundamental Technology of Food, Asahi Breweries, Ltd., Ibaraki, Japan.
Apple polyphenols (AP) mainly consist of procyanidins (PC), which are composed of (-)-epicatechins and (+)-catechins. In order to investigate the antiageing effects of PC, we measured the lifespan of CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS worms treated with PC. Treatment with 65 microg/mL PC extended the mean lifespan of wild-type N2 and FEM-1 worms by 12.1 % and 8.4 %, respectively, i.e., to a similar extent as resveratrol. In addition, treatment with 100 microg/mL AP also significantly prolonged the mean lifespan of the same worms by 12.0 % and 5.3 %, respectively, i.e., to a similar extent as PC. In contrast, treatment with (-)-epicatechin did not extend the lifespan of the worms. PC did not modify the growth, food intake, or fecundity of C. ELEGANS. Treatment with PC did not extend the lifespan of MEV-1 worms, which show excessive oxidative stress, indicating that PC had no antioxidant ability in the MEV-1 mutant. Moreover, treatment with PC had no effect on the longevity of SIR-2.1 worms, which lack the activity of SIR-2, a member of the sirtuin family of NAD (+)-dependent protein deacetylases. These results indicated that PC has SIR-2.1-dependent antiageing effects on C. ELEGANS.
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 14;57(19):9190-6.
Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, E-36208 Vigo, Spain.
The efficiency of different reductants (reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, and catalase) and metal chelators [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), and adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP)] to inhibit lipid oxidation promoted by fish hemoglobin was investigated. The inhibitory activity on hemoglobin-catalyzed lipid oxidation was also evaluated for grape oligomeric catechins (proanthocyanidins), which have both reducing and chelating properties. The antioxidant activity was studied in two different lipid oxidation models, liposomes and washed minced fish muscle. Grape proanthocyanidins were found to be significantly more effective than other reductants to prevent hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in both liposomes and washed fish muscle. Reduced glutathione was also efficient to retard lipid oxidation at the same molarity in washed fish muscle, whereas catalase and ascorbic acid showed a lower antioxidant activity. Metal chelators were less active than reductants, and consequently, the former were necessarily evaluated at much higher concentration than grape proanthocyanidins and reducing compounds. STPP was found to be the iron chelator with the strongest efficiency to delay hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation followed by EDTA. Citric acid and ATP were ineffective in retarding lipid oxidation in both systems. Grape proanthocyanidins provided the most extensive protection to preserve hemoglobin at ferrous state in washed fish muscle. Our results draw attention to the greater capacity of reducing compounds to prevent fish hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in comparison with iron chelators, suggesting that the free radical scavenging and/or reduction of ferrylHb species are crucial actions to avoid the pro-oxidant capacity of fish hemoglobin.
Istituto Chimico Farmaceutico Tossicologico, Milan, Italy.
An isolated rabbit heart Langendorff preparation paced electrically was used to evaluate the effects of a highly purified, high molecular weight fraction of oligomeric procyanidines isolated from Vitis vinifera seeds on myocardial reperfusion injury after 40 minutes of low flow (1 ml/min) ischemia. Infusion of the heart with 100 or 200 micrograms/ml procyanidines dose-dependently reduced ventricular contracture during ischemia (LVEDP values decreased by 28% and 51%), decreased coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), improved cardiac mechanical performance upon reperfusion, increased the release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha into the perfusate in both the pre-ischemic and the reperfusion periods (by 68% at 200 micrograms/ml), and suppressed rhythm irregularity. This antiarrhythmogenic action was confirmed in a more severe model of ischemia (flow rate 0.2 ml/ min). The cardioprotective agent allopurinol infused at 20 micrograms/ml had effects on the contractility and on the release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha comparable to those of 200 micrograms/ml procyanidines. The results of the second part of this study show that procyanidines are potent scavengers of several reactive oxygen species involved in the ischemia/reperfusion damage: the superoxide anion (IC50 = 5.64 microM: rate constant K = 7.55 x 10(5) M-1 s-1, determined by the phenazine methosulfate/NADH method); the hydroxyl radical (IC50 = 28 microM; rate constant K = 1.2 x 10(12) M-1 s-1, determined by the electron spin resonance spectroscopy); peroxyl radicals (IC50 = 0.025 microM and 0.35 microM, determined using two different lipid substrates, phosphatidylcholine liposomes and methyl linoleate micelles by UV spectroscopy at 233 nm). Finally, procyanidines interact with Fe2+ and Cu2+ ions (iron and copper ions, the catalysts of hydroxyl radical oxygen radicals production) giving rise to strong complexes, with stability constants (log K) ranging from 9.35 to approximately 9.