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  • How Modern Medicine Obfuscates Resveratrol Science

    September 20, 2013: by Bill Sardi

    Marketing a resveratrol-based dietary supplement has given me a front-row seat to view how modern medicine obfuscates science and throws in other roadblocks to indefinitely delay public acceptance of a truly miraculous natural molecule.

    Examination of events and published studies involving the red wine molecule resveratrol (rez-vair-a-trol) over the past decade reveals nine ways modern medicine has attempted to muddy the science and delay public adoption of this natural molecule as an affordable dietary supplement.

    This investigation reveals that researchers (a) intentionally employ overdoses of resveratrol in laboratory studies to produce negative or null results; (b) absurdly claim resveratrol is not biologically available when systemic results have been widely reported in animals and humans; (c) rigidly assert a single-gene target (Sirtuin1) is responsible for most of the health benefits produced by resveratrol when aging and chronic disease involves many genes; (d) doggedly pursue development of synthetic resveratrol-like molecules (analogs) in a futile attempt to produce a blockbuster drug; (e) ignore evidence that resveratrol works better at lower doses (hormesis); (f) continue to ignore an available resveratrol dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to produce health benefits in the animal lab and humans greater than a resveratrol-based drug that sold to a major drug company for $720 million; (g) launch false allegations against resveratrol researchers who conduct studies involving branded resveratrol dietary supplements; (h) produce faulty science with flawed conclusions; and finally (i) simply fail to prescribe or recommend resveratrol to needy patients.

    Some of the efforts to obfuscate the science surrounding resveratrol are almost laughable as one study found efforts to alter its molecular structure in order to produce a patentable blockbuster resveratrol-like drug were futile.  After molecular side chains are added to resveratrol they are efficiency removed during liver metabolization and return to native resveratrol.

    Another absurdity is the false assertion resveratrol is not biologically available due to its attachment to detoxification molecules as it passes through the human liver while animal and human studies document profound systemic health benefits.

    Hyperlinking permits presentation of published reports and events that can be checked by readers themselves.

    These events and scientific studies are categorized and identified within the text of this report as follows: (1) apparent intentional over-dosing of resveratrol in animal and human studies to produce negative results [INTENTIONAL OVERDOSE]; (2) false interpretation or conclusions regarding resveratrol [BAD SCIENCE]; (3) failure to recognize the widely documented fact that resveratrol works more favorably at low dose than in mega-doses (hormesis effect) [LOW-DOSE HORMESIS]; (4) the continued fabrication that resveratrol is not biologically available once it is metabolized (attached to detoxification proteins) as it passes through the liver [FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY]; (5) the narrow view that resveratrol’s effectiveness is measured by its ability to activate a sole gene among ~25,000 human genes when aging and disease involves a wide array of genes [SINGLE GENE TARGET]; (6) launch false allegations that resveratrol researchers conducted research fraud [FALSE ALLEGATIONS]; (7) pursue what turns out to be futile experiments to develop a patentable synthetic resveratrol analog (resveratrol-like) molecule that will reap huge financial rewards for its developers but make it a drug that is likely to be unaffordable to the masses [RESVERATROL-LIKE DRUG]; (8) ignore the best-tested resveratrol dietary supplement (Longevinex®) that has exceeded results obtained with a drug that sold to a drug company for $720 million. [LONGEVINEX OVERLOOKED]; (9) and fails to prescribe or recommend resveratrol. [FAILURE TO PRESCRIBE]

    In an attempt to sort these misrepresentations for readers, the following information, will be categorized as follows:


    Some events and published studies that do not fall into any of the above categories are presented as background information. [BACKGROUND INFO]

    June 1992: French physician Serge Renaud reports that wine produces a 40% decline in risk for coronary heart disease by its ability to dilate blood vessels rather than by cholesterol reduction. [BACKGROUND INFO]

    May 1993: Dr. Serge Renaud first describes French paradox, the fact the wine-drinking French smoke tobacco and consume ample amounts of fatty foods and have relatively high cholesterol levels, but exhibit an unusually low mortality rate for coronary artery disease (90 per 100,000 versus 240 per 100,000 in North America).  [BACKGROUND INFO]

    May 1995: The risk for death is found to decline by almost half for those who consume 3-5 glasses of wine compared to those who never drank wine. [LOW-DOSE HORMESIS EFFECT]

    Jan. 1997: Researcher John Pezzuto is commissioned to travel throughout the world in search of nature’s most potent anti-cancer molecules.  After screening over 1000 plants, his team reports in Science magazine that resveratrol exhibits “very unusual” anti-cancer properties as it is demonstrated to halt all three stages of cancer – initiation, promotion (growth) and progression (metastasis).  Sixteen years later resveratrol is still not employed in any anti-cancer regimen despite the fact its biological action exceeds that of any existing anti-cancer drug. [BACKGROUND INFO]

    Sept. 2009: Initial studies showed some heart health benefits are derived from consumption of any type of alcoholic beverage, but later studies reveal there are is much greater reduction in mortality rates from wine intake than from beer or alcohol spirits. [BACKGROUND INFO]

    Sept. 1999:  Investigators again report there are heart health benefits attributed to red wine that are not apparent with consumption of other alcoholic beverages. [BACKGROUND INFO]

    Jan. 2000: De-alcoholized red wine is found to produce the same improvements in blood flow as modest consumption of red wine, pointing to wine solids (known as polyphenols) as the active ingredients in red wine. [BACKGROUND INFO]

    May 2002: A modest dose of wine (3-5 glasses) is found to reduce mortality risk from heart disease compared to individuals who don’t consume alcohol.  The risk rises when consumption exceeds 5/glasses a day. [LOW-DOSE HORMESIS EFFECT]

    Sept. 2003: Harvard Professor David Sinclair and biotech investigator Konrad Howitz are the first to identify the red wine molecule resveratrol as a major activator of a survival gene (Sirtuin1), also activated by a limited calorie diet which is known to extend the healthspan and lifespan of laboratory animals. [SINGLE-GENE TARGET]

    Aug. 2004: Harvard professor David Sinclair notes that small molecules in plants like resveratrol may work as “mild biological stressors” to produce what is described as a hormesis effect – that mild biological toxins may provoke defensive mechanisms in the human body to extend lifespan.  Modest food deprivation (but not starvation) is another example of hormesis.  Small molecules like resveratrol represent molecular mimics of a limited calorie diet.  Sinclair repeats his claim in a subsequent report.  But then this researcher proceeds to lead animal and human studies that ignore hormesis (low-dose effect). [LOW-DOSE HORMESIS]

    Oct. 2004: Researchers report the argument that resveratrol is not biologically available because it is attached to detoxification molecules (glucuronate, sulfate) as it passes through the liver may be a moot point.  Investigators note that an enzyme abundant at sites of infection, inflammation and malignancy (glucuronidase) unlocks resveratrol from its carrier protein and delivers this molecule in a free unbound state at the right time and place.  [FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY]

    Nov. 2006: Dr. Sinclair receives widespread attention from the news media with publication of the first report that resveratrol prolongs the life and improves health of mice on a high-calorie diet.  While prior experiments had demonstrated the same results with yeast cells, fruit flies and roundworms, this was the first such successful experiment in a warm-blooded mammal.  [BACKGROUND INFO]

    April 2008: Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, a developmental drug company, describes its SRT-501 drug as a “proprietary formulation of resveratrol with improved bioavailability.” [RESVERATROL-LIKE DRUG]

    April 2008: GlaxoSmithKline announces purchase of Sirtris Pharmaceuticals for $720 million. The purchase underscores the commercial value of resveratrol. [BACKGROUND INFO]

    June 2008: Investigators demonstrate a low-dose of resveratrol mimics the gene expression pattern of calorie restriction in laboratory mice.  Mega-doses are not required. [LOW DOSE HORMESIS]

    Aug. 2008: Resveratrol science takes a step backwards as mega-dose (1565 mg) resveratrol did not prolong the life of laboratory mice on a standard-calorie diet.  [INTENTIONAL OVER DOSING]

    August 2008: The National Institutes of Health approves a human clinical trial of a resveratrol dietary supplement (Longevinex®) among Alzheimer’s disease patients but the university that applied for the study never recruits subjects.  [LONGEVINEX OVERLOOKED]

    Sept. 2008: Longevity researchers compare global gene activation over a 12-week period among laboratory mice employing (a) a calorie restricted diet (which activates 831 longevity genes over the lifetime of the animal); (b) a standard-calorie diet + resveratrol and (c) a standard-calorie diet + Longevinex.  The limited calorie diet activates 198 of 831 longevity genes and resveratrol activates 225 of 831 longevity genes.  Longevinex activates 1711 genes and 677 of 831 known longevity genes (81%), making it the closest molecular mimic to a limited calorie diet ever demonstrated.  This study suggests optimal effect of resveratrol pills requires life-long use while Longevinex exhibits a similar gene-activation profile rapidly.  The same researchers who conducted the above study later appeared on CBS Sixty-Minutes TV program on a feature report about the promise of resveratrol, but fail to mention an available dietary supplement (Longevinex®) is the closest molecular mimic to a life-prolonging calorie restricted diet in lab animals. [LONGEVINEX OVERLOOKED]

    March 2009: Sirtris Pharmaceuticals report on its two Sirtuin1 gene activating drugs SRT-501 (resveratrol) and SRT-1720 (a synthetically produced molecule). [RESVERATROL-LIKE DRUG]

    May 2009: Researcher David Sinclair appears on CBS Sixty-Minutes TV program and says it would require 1,000 bottles of wine to obtain the amount of resveratrol successfully used in laboratory studies. [INTENTIONAL OVER-DOSING; IGNORE LOW-DOSE HORMESIS]

    Dec. 2009: Dr. Stuart Richer OD, PhD, reports on the first resveratrol- treated (Longevinex) case in an 80-year old male with vision problems.  Longevinex reduced retinal deposits of cellular debris (known as lipofuscin), a marker of cellular aging.  Measureable improvements were noted in visual and mental function.  This may be the first documented case of molecular medicine in action in ophthalmology. [BACKGROUND INFO]

    March 2010: Sirtris Pharmaceuticals reports its SRT1720, SRT 1460, and SRT 2183 drugs are indirect activators of the Sirtuin1 survival gene. [RESVERATROL-LIKE DRUG]

    Winter 2010: Dipak Das and colleagues report that mega-doses of Longevinex, equivalent to 2800 mg in humans, does not exhibit cell killing activity (cytotoxicity) and retains its ability to protect animal hearts from experimentally-induced heart attacks.  Such a mega-dose (2800 mg) of plain resveratrol kills (stops) hearts in the animal lab.  This study demonstrates the unusual safety and effectiveness of Longevinex® over plain resveratrol products.  It is the first molecular matrix in biology shown to exhibit an L-shaped risk curve.  [LONGEVINEX OVERLOOKED]

    Nov. 2010: At a dose which is pharmacologically relevant and 20 times lower than previously published concentrations, resveratrol significantly extends the life of roundworm lifespan (3.6% mean lifespan and 3.4% maximum lifespan). By unexpected contrast, Sirtris Pharmaceuticals SRT1720 drug, which was previously proposed to be several hundred times more active than resveratrol, did not extend lifespan at any of the concentrations tested. Thus, in roundworms, resveratrol is capable of promoting longevity at a concentration that pharmacologically relevant while the Sirtuin gene activator SRT1720 did not extend lifespan.  [RESVERATROL-LIKE DRUG]

    Dec. 2010: Resveratrol consistently exhibits a hormetic-dose response (low-dose effectiveness, high-dose toxicity).  Researchers call for human clinical trials to further assess the proper dose of resveratrol.  [LOW-DOSE HORMESIS EFFECT]

    Dec. 2010: National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers report resveratrol and more so Longevinex® restores a pre-heart-attack gene activation pattern in laboratory animals as evidenced by microRNA analysis.  Longevinex® exhibits about double the heart protection as plain resveratrol. [IGNORE LONGEVINEX]  The independent NIH microRNA analysis invalidates the false claim that Dr. Dipak Das falsified research studies.  To date, only one known cardiologist (Nate Lebowitz MD, Ft. Lee, NJ) prescribes Longevinex® for his patients.  A Medicare review shows Dr. Lebowitz’s patients have experienced zero rate of heart attacks under his care. [FAILURE TO PRESCRIBE]

    Jan. 2011: The study of resveratrol to target a particular gene, Sirtuin1, may be too narrow as this molecule influences many other genes that could contribute to its health benefits.  [SINGLE-GENE TARGET]

    Feb. 2011:  Longevinex® is shown to lower blood cholesterol and reduce arterial plaque in animals.  [LONGEVINEX OVERLOOKED]

    June 2011: A collaborative report of resveratrol researchers worldwide offered five remaining scientific questions that need to be answered about this red wine molecule.  They are:  (1) Can resveratrol be recommended in the prevention or treatment of human diseases?; (2) Are there observed “side effects” caused by the intake of resveratrol in humans?; (3) What is the relevant dose of resveratrol?; (4) What valid data are available regarding an effect in various species of experimental animals?; (5) Which relevant (overall) mechanisms of action of resveratrol have been documented?  These researchers conclude “the published evidence is not sufficiently strong to justify a recommendation for the administration of resveratrol to humans.” [IGNORE LOW-DOSE HORMESIS EFFECT]

    Aug. 2011: Researchers mistakenly claim resveratrol has only been met with limited success in human trials because of its inefficient delivery and low bioavailability.  They also suggest new strategies to reduce its “perceived toxicity.” [FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY]

    Aug. 2011: Sirtris Pharmaceuticals SRT1720 drug is reported to extend lifespan of obese laboratory mice via activation of the Sirtuin1 survival gene. [RESVERATROL-LIKE DRUG]

    Aug. 2011: Only a limited number of human clinical trials are available that describe the various aspects of resveratrol’s safety and bioavailability. Interpretation: modern medicine is dragging its feet.  [BACKGROUND INFO]

    Aug. 2011:  Resveratrol works synergistically (not just additively) with other small molecules (quercetin, vitamin D) to produce its beneficial biological effects.  [BACKGROUND INFO]

    Sept. 2011:  Micron-sized resveratrol is found to increase blood levels of resveratrol by 3.6 fold.  [BACKGROUND INFO]

    Nov. 2011: Longevinex®, a resveratrol-based dietary supplement, is shown to improve circulation among metabolic disease (diabetic, obese) patients as measured by its ability to dilate (widen) blood vessels as blood flow increases.  The effect was about double that or prior studies using plain resveratrol.  Inability to dilate blood vessels with increased blood flow is the first sign of arterial disease.  [IGNORE LONGEVINEX]

    Nov. 2011: Researchers demonstrate that 30 days of 150 mg of resveratrol supplementation induces favorable metabolic changes in obese humans, mimicking the effects of calorie restriction. [LOW-DOSE HORMESIS]

    Dec. 2011:  Frank Sellke, noted animal/heart researcher, laments that the shift from the animal lab to human clinical studies involving resveratrol has been “unexpectedly slow.” [BACKGROUND INFO]

    Jan. 2012:  An estimated 325 news agencies issued the news that a resveratrol researcher had been accused of scientific fraud.  The news reports claimed Dipak Das had been found guilty of 145 counts of fabrication of data based upon 60,000 pages of evidence posted by his university online.  The university that issued this information withdraws it from online view when its veracity is immediately questioned. [FALSE ALLEGATIONS]

    Jan. 2012: In the only human clinical trial involving resveratrol in cardiology to date, researchers in Hungary report that resveratrol had a clinically measurable cardio-protective effect among patients after a heart attack.  Remarkably just 10 milligrams of resveratrol produced these beneficial effects when given daily for 3 months.  [BACKGROUND INFO]

    May 2012: Canadian researchers respond to the allegations that resveratrol researcher Dipak Das conducted scientific fraud by saying his work has been demonstrated by many other groups over the past decade.  [FALSE ALLEGATIONS]

    June 2012: Sirtris Pharmaceuticals SRT1720 experimental drug is found to the spread (metastasis) of breast cancer cells in laboratory mice.  [RESVERATROL-LIKE DRUG]

    Oct. 2012: Resveratrol reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of rolipram, an FDA-approved drug, including protection against diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina and glucose tolerance in mice. [BACKGROUND INFO]

    Oct. 2012: National Institutes of Health researchers reveal the initial gene target of resveratrol is an inhibitor of an enzyme – cAMP phosphodiesterase(4), not Sirtuin1.  [SINGLE-GENE TARGET]

    Jan. 2013: The dose of resveratrol used in research studies needs to be reappraised as a hormetic agent, that is, it exerts a “beneficial effect at low doses and toxic activity at high dose.” [LOW-DOSE HORMESIS]

    Jan. 2013: Researchers employed mega-dose resveratrol in lab animals, the equivalent of 3500-21,000 milligrams in a human, to then conclude that this red wine molecule does not produce a “statistically significant effect on life span of mice.” [INTENTIONAL OVERDOSING]

    Feb. 2013:  Despite evidence to the contrary, researchers continue to mistakenly claim “the so-called ‘Resveratrol Paradox’, i.e., low bioavailability but high bioactivity, is a conundrum not yet solved.”  Researchers accurately maintain “the vast majority of preclinical studies have been performed using assay conditions with a questionable extrapolation to humans, i.e. too high concentrations with potential safety concerns (adverse effects and drug interactions), short-term exposures, in vitro (test tube) tests carried out with non-physiological metabolites and/or concentrations, etc.”  Frankly, the research community appears to be intentionally using mega-doses in the laboratory experiments to produce negative study results. [INTENTIONAL OVERDOSING; FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY]

    March 2013: With some studies showing resveratrol does not directly activate the Sirtuin1 survival gene as first demonstrated, Harvard researchers found a fluorescent compound used to test resveratrol mimics an amino acid (tryptophan) that shuts off Sirtuin1.  When the fluorescent compound is replaced, direct activation of Sirtuin1 is demonstrated with resveratrol.  This experiment should clear the air over activation of the Sirtuin1 gene, said to be a key gene in mimicking the biological action of a calorie restricted diet.  [SINGLE-GENE TARGET]

    March 2013:  Concern has been expressed that resveratrol as an estrogen-like molecule may exert undesirable biological action even though it only has 1/7000th the strength of estrogen itself.  Researchers now show that resveratrol is attached to sulfate as it passes through the human liver and resveratrol-sulfate acts as an anti-estrogen, balancing out any pro-estrogen effect.   [BACKGROUND INFO]

    March 2013:  GlaxoSmithKline officially announces closure of Sirtris Pharmaceuticals [BACKGROUND INFO]

    March 2013: A press release says GlaxoSmithKline remains confident in the synthetic drug molecules in received in the acquisition of Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, particularly SRT2014 that made it through initial safety study in healthy volunteers.  No mention is made of SRT501, its widely extolled resveratrol-based drug.

    April 2013: High-dose (1500 mg/day) resveratrol supplementation had no effect on blood pressure; resting energy expenditure; oxidation rates of lipid; ectopic or visceral fat content; or inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers among obese men.  [INTENTIONAL OVERDOSING]

    April 2013: a journal commentary lamely attempts to explain why a study using chronic high doses (1500 mg/day) of resveratrol failed to demonstrable metabolic effects.  No mention is made of the hormesis effect, that low-dose resveratrol is demonstrated to produce a beneficial protective effect as a mild biological stressor.  Mega-dose resveratrol would negate this effect.  The report goes on to say that “despite initial enthusiasm, resveratrol has largely been abandoned by the pharmaceutical industry, although the reasons (scientific vs. economic) have not been made public and results of some completed clinical trials were never published.”  Despite journals and researchers committing to reveal all of their scientific studies (positive, null or negative), Big Pharma continues to hide important research studies.  [INTENTIONAL OVERDOSING; IGNORE LOW-DOSE HORMESIS EFFECT]

    April 2013: Resveratrol is shown to reduce inflammation among professional basketball players. [BIOAVAILABILITY DEMONSTRATED]

    May 2013:  Resveratrol metabolites (resveratrol attached to detoxification molecules in the liver) exhibit biological activity, contrary to popular thought.  [FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY]

    June 2013: Researchers continue to errantly claim “the clinical use of polyphenols [resveratrol] is not … mainstream as issues regarding poor selectivity, dosage, toxicity and delivery methods are unresolved.’  However, the criticism that resveratrol does not target a specific gene may be advantageous as chronic diseases and aging itself involve many genes.  The broad ability of resveratrol to influence a wide array of genes should be considered advantageous.  [FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY; SINGLE-GENE TARGET]

    June 2013: In contrast to claims resveratrol is not biologically available due to attachment o detoxification molecules as it passes through the human liver, thus making it too large a molecule to pass through cell walls, investigators demonstrate that resveratrol attached to other molecules (glucuronate, sulfate) shows “equal, comparable, or some degree of activity” as un-metabolized resveratrol.  Metabolized resveratrol does exhibit biological activity! [FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY]

    March 2013:  GlaxoSmithKline officially announces closure of Sirtris Pharmaceuticals [BACKGROUND INFO]

    June 2013: Once again, resveratrol is shown to improve circulation, this time in obese adults (evidence of bioavailability). [FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY]

    June 2013: Stuart Richer OD, PhD, optometrist at the Veterans Health Center in North Chicago, reports on remarkable first cases of remission from wet macular degeneration with Longevinex red wine pill when injected drugs failed to cause abnormal blood vessels to recede from the visual center (macula) of the eyes.  Approximately 15,000 cases/year of wet macular degeneration are unimproved following medical therapy and would be candidates for this dietary supplement.  (Note: No interest expressed by eye physicians to use this natural oral therapy in lieu of needle injection into the eyes, even on a compassionate use basis.)  [LONGEVINEX OVERLOOKED]

    June 2013:  Attempts to make synthetic versions (analogs) of resveratrol are being hampered by the fact, once metabolized by the liver, they often return to form its parent molecule.  (Laughable!  Nature is so kind.) [RESVERATROL-LIKE DRUG]

    July 2013: Running contrary to claims resveratrol is not biologically available to due attachment to detoxification molecules as it is metabolized in the liver, resveratrol enhances the bioavailability of a transient gas (nitric oxide) that forms in the arteries which then diminishes the first sign of blood vessel aging – the inability of arteries to widen (dilate) with increased heart pumping (flow-mediated dilatation).  [FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY]

    July 2013: Reviewers take other researchers to task for employing “rather high doses” of resveratrol in their efforts in the animal lab to demonstrate resveratrol prevents first-time heart attacks.  [INTENTIONAL OVERDOSING]

    July 2013: Critics continue to errantly claim “resveratrol lacks potency, high efficacy, and target specificity; it is rapidly metabolized and serum concentrations are low” and is not a good drug candidate. [SINGLE-GENE TARGET]

    July 2013: The organizer of a scientific symposium on resveratrol, who openly advocates it must become a drug rather than a dietary supplement, claims the evidence is “not sufficiently strong to justify recommendation for the chronic administration of resveratrol to human beings, beyond the dose which can be obtained from dietary sources.”  This organizer appears to be a shill for Big Pharma. [BACKGROUND INFO]

    Aug. 2013: Despite claims of poor biological availability, resveratrol is demonstrated to relax arteries and thus improve blood flow in humans.  [FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY]

    Aug. 2013: A review shows a number of patents have been submitted involving resveratrol, however the “biggest problem associated with this molecule [is its] limited bioavailability due to fast metabolism in the liver [which] has led to [development of] its analogs (look-alike molecules).  [FALSEHOOD BIOAVAILABILITY]

    Aug. 2013: Despite the fact 250 mg of daily supplemental resveratrol resulted in blood pressure and cholesterol numbers that fell within the “desirable” and “optimal” range as defined by the American Heart Association, researchers in Denmark chose to say resveratrol blunted the effects of exercise on cardiovascular health.  A regimen of exercise and exercise + resveratrol were put to the test among sedentary but healthy males.  The differences between exercise and exercise + resveratrol were statistical and not meaningful (clinical).  This study serves as an example of overtly distorted science.  The report received widespread attention in the news media. [BAD SCIENCE]

    Aug. 2013: Harvard Professor David Sinclair, quoted in an Australian newspaper, says he expects to see people live to 120 and beyond in our lifetime, but shifts his projection of when this may occur to “within the next 20 to 30 years.” [BACKGROUND INFO]

    Aug. 2013: 150 mg/day of resveratrol among healthy obese men significantly decreased the size of fat (adipocyte) cells. [LOW-DOSE HORMESIS EFFECT]

    Sept. 2013: Longevinex® becomes the first resveratrol-based dietary supplement to undergo successful toxicity testing, a formality that is usually confined to drugs.  It cannot be said that this dietary supplement is inferior to FDA approved drugs because it has not undergone proper pre-clinical testing. [LONGEVINEX OVERLOOKED]

    Sept. 2013: Researchers at a leading university-based geriatric center conduct a study showing an array of polyphenols including resveratrol, employed with other vitamins and minerals, produced no metabolic or cardiovascular health benefits among human subjects.  These researchers, who are fully aware of the low-dose hormesis effect, chose to employ an overdose of polyphenols (5400 milligrams total), which is considered to promote oxidation rather than serve as a protective antioxidant dose.  [INTENTIONAL OVERDOSING; BAD SCIENCE]

    ®2013 Bill Sardi,


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